The financial market in Bangladesh is mainly of following types:
- Money Market: The money market comprises banks and financial institutions as intermediaries, 20 of them are primary dealers in treasury securities. Interbank clean and repo based lending, BB's repo, reverse repo auctions, BB bills auctions, treasury bills auctions are primary operations in the money market, there is also active secondary trade in treasury bills (upto 1 year maturity).
- Taka Treasury Bond market: The Taka treasury bond market consists of primary issues of treasury bonds of different maturities (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years), and secondary trade therein through primary dealers. 20 banks performing as Primary Dealers participate directly in the primary auctions. Other bank and non bank investors can participate in primary auctions and in secondary trading through their nominated Primary Dealers. Non-resident individual and institutional investors can also participate in primary and secondary market, but only in treasury bonds.
Monthly data on primary and secondary trade volumes in treasury bills and bonds and data on outstanding volume of treasury bonds held by non residents can be accessed at Monthly data of Treasury Bills & Bonds .
- Capital market:The primary issues and secondary trading of equity securities of capital market take place through two (02) stock exchanges-Dhaka Stock Exchange and Chittagong Stock Exchange. The instruments in these exchanges are equity securities (shares), debentures and corporate bonds. The capital market is regulated by Bangladesh Securities and Exchange Commission (BSEC).
- Foreign Exchange Market:Towards liberalization of foreign exchange transactions, a number of measures were adopted since 1990s. Bangladeshi currency, the taka, was declared convertible on current account transactions (as on 24 March 1994), in terms of Article VIII of IMF Article of Agreement (1994). As Taka is not convertible in capital account, resident owned capital is not freely transferable abroad. Repatriation of profits or disinvestment proceeds on non-resident FDI and portfolio investment inflows are permitted freely. Direct investments of non-residents in the industrial sector and portfolio investments of non-residents through stock exchanges are repatriable abroad, as also are capital gains and profits/dividends thereon. Investment abroad of resident-owned capital is subject to prior Bangladesh Bank approval, which is allowed only sparingly. Bangladesh adopted Floating Exchange Rate regime since 31 May 2003. Under the regime, BB does not interfere in the determination of exchange rate, but operates the monetary policy prudently for minimizing extreme swings in exchange rate to avoid adverse repercussion on the domestic economy. The exchange rate is being determined in the market on the basis of market demand and supply forces of the respective currencies. In the forex market banks are free to buy and sale foreign currency in the spot and also in the forward markets. However, to avoid any unusual volatility in the exchange rate, Bangladesh Bank, the regulator of foreign exchange market remains vigilant over the developments in the foreign exchange market and intervenes by buying and selling foreign currencies whenever it deems necessary to maintain stability in the foreign exchange market.