The financial market in Bangladesh is mainly of following types:
- Money Market: The primary money market is comprised of banks, FIs and primary dealers as intermediaries and savings & lending instruments, treasury bills as instruments. There are currently 15 primary dealers (12 banks and 3 FIs) in Bangladesh. The only active secondary market is overnight call money market which is participated by the scheduled banks and FIs. The money market in Bangladesh is regulated by Bangladesh Bank (BB), the Central Bank of Bangladesh.
- Capital market: The primary segment of capital market is operated through private and public offering of equity and bond instruments. The secondary segment of capital market is institutionalized by two (02) stock exchanges-Dhaka Stock Exchange and Chittagong Stock Exchange. The instruments in these exchanges are equity securities (shares), debentures, corporate bonds and treasury bonds. The capital market in Bangladesh is governed by Securities and Commission (SEC).
- Foreign Exchange Market: Towards liberalization of foreign exchange transactions, a number of measures were adopted since 1990s. Bangladeshi currency, the taka, was declared convertible on current account transactions (as on 24 March 1994), in terms of Article VIII of IMF Article of Agreement (1994). As Taka is not convertible in capital account, resident owned capital is not freely transferable abroad. Repatriation of profits or disinvestment proceeds on non-resident FDI and portfolio investment inflows are permitted freely. Direct investments of non-residents in the industrial sector and portfolio investments of non-residents through stock exchanges are repatriable abroad, as also are capital gains and profits/dividends thereon. Investment abroad of resident-owned capital is subject to prior Bangladesh Bank approval, which is allowed only sparingly. Bangladesh adopted Floating Exchange Rate regime since 31 May 2003. Under the regime, BB does not interfere in the determination of exchange rate, but operates the monetary policy prudently for minimizing extreme swings in exchange rate to avoid adverse repercussion on the domestic economy. The exchange rate is being determined in the market on the basis of market demand and supply forces of the respective currencies. In the forex market banks are free to buy and sale foreign currency in the spot and also in the forward markets. However, to avoid any unusual volatility in the exchange rate, Bangladesh Bank, the regulator of foreign exchange market remains vigilant over the developments in the foreign exchange market and intervenes by buying and selling foreign currencies whenever it deems necessary to maintain stability in the foreign exchange market.